After 10 years of pure electric bus ride forward

Recently, many cities across the country have listed the promotion plans for new energy vehicles. For example, the number of new energy buses planned to be promoted in Thousand in Tianjin and Tianjin exceeded 1,000, of which pure electric buses are the mainstream. Taiyuan is also promoting the electric bus demonstration operation project and plans to purchase 100 pure electric buses. In addition, the first 10 pure electric buses in Tangshan were put into use a few days ago, and the pure electric buses demonstrated and promoted in Shenzhen reached 1,279 vehicles.

In addition, the "Notice on Continuing the Promotion and Application of New Energy Vehicles" (hereinafter referred to as the "Notice") clearly stated in September that "new energy vehicle models included in the scope of central government subsidies should be qualified pure electric vehicles. , plug-in hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles, and "focus on increasing government agencies, public institutions, public transport and other areas of new energy vehicle promotion efforts."

With the rapid development of each region and the clear policy orientation, pure electric buses will undoubtedly be a major market in the future.

However, a recent news report from Foshan seems to have poured cold water on booming pure electric buses. According to reports, the first pure electric bus line in Foshan, which is scheduled to open this year, has been "premature". Although the local government once issued a document saying that it will speed up the promotion and application of new energy vehicles in the public transport industry, but due to the immature technology, the cooperative company Foshan Lighting has withdrawn from the new energy industry, and this “green reform” cannot be achieved at present.

In 2003, China's first pure electric bus was introduced and applied to the Beijing 121 line, which became the first commercial bus line of new energy in China. So far, pure electric buses have gone through 10 years. What kind of development has it achieved? What are the challenges? In the future, where will it go?

Great social benefits

From a large environmental perspective, pure electric buses that have passed 10 years have become more valuable this year in fog and haze.

“From the current situation, local enthusiasm for the development of pure electric buses is generally high.” Wang Binggang, head of the major special consulting group for the “863” energy-saving and new energy vehicle of the Ministry of Science and Technology, told the “Commercial Automotive News” reporter: “Many places in our country Both are facing severe environmental problems, especially this year, hazy weather has swept across the country, local governments and people have given unprecedented attention to air quality, in this case, pure electric buses, or electric buses It is worth paying attention to the fact that buses are driving in densely populated areas of the city, and it would be ideal if they can achieve electrification.There are many electrification options, such as the trams and trolleybuses we used earlier, but they are all electric vehicles. , but no battery was used. Later, we wanted to get the bus off the track and we had a battery."

From his point of view, from the perspective of mitigation of air pollution, buses need to take the electrification approach. In the future, traffic should be dominated by public transport. Cities should vigorously promote public transport and reduce private cars. In this direction, we should try to develop various forms of electric buses. Pure electric buses are one of them.

"The publication of the "Notice" has once again promoted the development of new energy vehicles. In my opinion, the country's promotion of purely electric buses may increase in the future." Industry expert Ren Shifa said: "The country cannot tolerate haze." In the future, the development of new energy will be the direction in the future. Under the influence of this direction, the development of pure electric buses will only increase and will not shrink."

Bus manufacturers also agree with this: “Despite the high operating costs of pure electric buses, the social benefits it brings are also enormous. Especially in the current environment, air pollution is serious and pure electric buses reduce exhaust emissions. It also reduces the reliance on oil. Of course, the high cost requires someone to bear it. At present, the cost mainly depends on the support of the government. Therefore, whether or not local governments develop new energy vehicles and how large the scale of development are will be resolved by the local government."

Technology has made progress

During these 10 years, the technology of pure electric buses has also made great progress. This is an objective condition for their survival and development.

“The first difficulty encountered by pure electric buses is technical issues, namely, reliability and safety. When we first started running, everyone was cautious. After all, there were so many batteries installed on the car. Safety was a big problem. The pure electric bus has not yet produced a major accident, which proves the progress of technology, and certainly cannot be taken lightly.” Wang Binggang said: “The second is reliability and battery life. The degree of battery attenuation depends on the specific brand, and some manufacturers The battery is not bad."

Technological progress cannot be separated from the efforts of manufacturers. Many manufacturers have stated that in recent years, the bus manufacturer has improved the performance of the entire vehicle and system control, which has improved the operation effect of pure electric buses.

For the current problems still exist in pure electric buses, there are also corporate experts who have given suggestions: “The problem of poor battery attenuation and endurance is indeed present, but it can be compensated by charging and replacing electricity. At present, the continued operation of pure electric buses. The mileage can generally reach 100~200km, while the city bus runs only a few tens of kilometers, which can meet the running demand.If it is running in the urban area, it can be recharged or directly exchanged when it is running in the city. The trip must be at least 100-200 km, and if it is not charged, it is not suitable for pure electric buses. In addition, for the problem of battery attenuation, OEMs can resolve the contract by signing a contract with the battery factory. The problem of life span should be entirely covered by the battery manufacturer, just as the vehicle warranty is the responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer.Battery belongs to the core components of a pure electric passenger car, including the service life limit, after-sales service, etc., must rely on the participation of core component companies. Once the battery has a problem, the battery factory will adopt a replacement battery or a technical solution to solve this problem. Factories and battery consultations, the user does not need to worry about. At the same time, I suggest that all OEMs must not buy when using the battery, you can rent a part. "

Multiple measures to reduce costs

The high purchase and operating costs of pure electric buses are a topic that cannot be bypassed. This is also an important reason why many electric buses are not opened or halfway “failed”.

“The second difficulty encountered by pure electric buses is economicality. Who will bear the cost of a large portion of the cost of the fuel bus? The public transport system in many places is subject to government administrative expenditure, but in some places it is not entirely. So, for example, in some places, the bus operation is contracted out, and at this time who will bear the cost is a big problem.” Wang Binggang further analyzed: “In my opinion, before the pure electric bus is launched, it depends on how much the city can afford. And whether it is possible to explore other more economical options to reduce costs, such as installing fewer batteries or charging quickly. I have done statistics that urban public transport routes are not very long, generally between 20 and 40 kilometers. If you can quickly charge the car during the break, you can install a lot of batteries, thereby reducing costs.As for the cost of late maintenance, as long as the battery is good, the maintenance cost is not great, because the motor itself is very reliable, mainly the battery, and The current battery technology has made great progress and the life span has also been extended."

At the same time, he pointed out that in the future, both the technology and the operation plan must be further explored and cannot be simply affirmed or denied.

Or will be operated by the market

The opening of pure electric buses is nothing more than two results: one is running smoothly, and the other is halfway. Regarding the "borrowing" of the route, Ren Shifa thinks that there are many reasons: "The first is that the target market is not identified, or that a certain place does not have the conditions for opening a pure electric bus line; Second, the local government may not provide financial subsidies. Purely electric bus lines are not always government money, depending on the specific project, it is generally the first project that is approved by the local government. After the approval of the local government, the manufacturer makes the product, gets national approval, and the bus company buys and runs it. The bus companies together applied for subsidies from the local government or were allocated by the national government to the local government.We know that the pure electric buses in Hefei are in operation, that is, the bus companies, manufacturers, etc., applied their plans and established projects to the country, and they were finally approved. Very good, Hefei bus out of Hefei for the local government to apply for subsidies."

This shows that even with government subsidies, it is not easy to get this subsidy.

“The pure electric bus has developed more than before, but it is still a conceptual hype. It is not a lot of people who really put it into use because it is too expensive to use. At the same time, obtaining national subsidies requires many approval procedures. Look, in the future, the country may simplify the examination and approval procedures and hand it over to the market.In other words, not only for pure electric buses, the country may plan to gradually introduce new energy buses to the market. Will gradually let go."

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